Temple Grandin

RW Photo Temple with Cow

Thank you to GGSTEM contributor Jill Tietjen, who contacted Temple Grandin about writing for GGSTEM.  Photo credit:  Rosalie Winard

Science Needs Different Kinds of Minds
by Temple Grandin

Today I am a professor of animal science at Colorado State University. When I was in high school, I was constantly teased and bullied.  The only refuge I had away from teasing was electronics lab, model rockets, and horseback riding. My science teacher was instrumental in motivating me to study so I could achieve my goal of becoming a scientist.  In his lab, he had lots of interesting projects.  One of my favorites was gluing bits of mirror to a rubber membrane stretched over a large audio speaker.  A lamp was used to reflect light from the mirrors into the ceiling.  When the music played, spots of light jiggled in time with the music.

I had lots of trouble with math and with lots of tutoring, I got B’s in finite math and a C in statistics.  Algebra was impossible.  I am concerned that all the emphasis on STEM will keep people like me out of science. Science needs people like me who have advanced visualization skills to work with the mathematicians.  I discuss this in my 2010 TED talk.  Visual thinkers who may be poor at math are needed.  I will give you an example. When the Fukashima Nuclear Plants melted down, I was shocked to learn that a visualization error had been made in the design.  The mathematicians and engineers did not see it.  If they had installed watertight doors, they would have protected all the emergency equipment that was located in the basement.  This is a mistake I would never make because I could visualize water filling the basement. Science really does need all kinds of minds.  My book, The Autistic Brain, has further descriptions of different types of thinking. The different kids of minds compliment each other’s skills.

Temple Grandin

RW Temple with five cows

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Conchita Zuazaga


Thank you to Gabriel H. Ortiz-Pena, who submitted this post to GGSTEM about his grandmother, Conchita Zuazaga. He wrote

My grandmother Conchita Zuazaga got her B.S. and M.S. in chemistry from the University of Puerto Rico in 1962 and 1964, respectively. After some years of working as an instructor and a research assistant at the UPR, she got her Ph.D. in Physiology at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis in 1979. She’s co-authored 17 papers, 2 reviews, and a chapter in a textbook. Some of the awards and honors she’s received include the Puerto Rico College of Chemists Prize (1962) and the Medal of the Association of Women Graduates, UPR (1962). She’s always been supportive of my plans, both when I was thinking of becoming a professional musician and when I decided I wanted to go into astrophysics. She was a professor at the UPR for 30 years (1980-2010) and is working on writing a book in her retirement.

In the spirit of celebrating women in STEM, I would also like to mention that my mother is the first person in her family to get a college degree. Despite being a first-generation student, she went on to complete her PhD. in Neurotoxicology at the University of Cincinnati. She completed two postdocs, one of them at UC Berkeley, and taught for 15 years at the UPR’s biology department.

Earlier this summer, my dad posted a facebook status saying that he had just installed Ubuntu on her computer.  Some of his friends and I laughed a bit at how much of a chore it was going to be to teach her how to operate it, but his response put things into perspective (and motivated me to finish writing the story for you).

He said: “Keep in mind that she has a PhD. in biophysics and programmed Fortran on a PDP-11. I’m rooting for her.”
Sometimes it’s easy to see my grandma having trouble with the DVD or her cellphone and forget those things. Just because she’s not as technologically savvy as us youngsters doesn’t mean she’s not scientifically and technically proficient. I hope this post will serve as a reminder to never underestimate any grandmothers, especially my own.

The picture is of her and my grandfather at what I think was my dad’s third or fourth birthday party. Thanks for starting this wonderful project!

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Jill S Tietjen

Jill Tietjen is a regular contributor to GGSTEM.  Now we get to read about her!

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Photo – the Board of Directors of Merrick & Company, June 2014
Guess which one I am :) ?

Electricity. Something that almost all of us take for granted. My life’s work has been to ensure that the supply of electricity is adequate and reliable. What would our lives be like without it? No computers. No cell phones. No air conditioning. No coffee maker. No refrigerator. The list is almost endless. We would be less comfortable, less safe, less productive.

Did I know that I wanted to work in the electric utility industry when I was growing up? NO. I didn’t even know when I went to college that I was going to be an engineer. No one encouraged me to pursue engineering, not even my Ph.D. engineer father. But, at the University of Virginia (where I was in the third undergraduate class in which women were admitted – under court order), I eventually found my way to the engineering school and graduated with a B.S. in applied mathematics and a minor in electrical engineering.

For my first job, I ended up as a planner for Duke Power Company, an electric utility in Charlotte, North Carolina. It was a great fit for me and it allowed me to get my M.B.A at night, while working full time. After moving to Colorado in 1981, I became registered as a professional engineer and have worked as a consultant to the electric utility industry for over 30 years. I serve as an expert witness and testify before regulatory bodies on behalf of my utility clients generally on the topic of the selection and prudence of generating resource selection. Those generation resources have included power plants fueled by coal, natural gas, water, the sun, and the wind. I have also examined power plants fueled by a wide variety of other technologies from nuclear to geothermal.

Since I was not encouraged to become an engineer, I have spent most of my professional career actively encouraging others, particularly girls and women, to pursue STEM careers through the Society of Women Engineers. I served as National President in 1991-1992 and believe not only that engineers make the world work, but that women make excellent STEM practitioners. And there should be more women in all STEM fields.

One of the other things that I strongly believe is that women should be recognized for their accomplishments. To that end, I have twice been at the White House where my nominee has received the National Medal of Technology from the President of the United States (Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, 1991, President George H.W. Bush and Yvonne Brill, 2011, President Barack Obama). I have nominated over 20 women, many of them STEM women, to the National Women’s Hall of Fame (www.greatwomen.org) and today I serve as President of the Board of Directors of the Hall. I blog for the Huffington Post because of that position. I have been inducted into the Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame (www.cogreatwomen.org). I have nominated women for a wide range of other awards as well. And, I have an award-winning and bestselling book for which I speak all over the country – Her Story: A Timeline of the Women Who Changed America.

Today, I sit as an independent (or outside) director on two corporate boards – Georgia Transmission Corporation of Tucker, Georgia and Merrick & Company of Greenwood Village, Colorado (see photo). Did you know that companies that have women on their boards tend to perform better – produce higher levels of profit – than companies that don’t? More women are needed on corporate boards as well.

My life is not all work. I play tennis (see photo), do needlework, participate in community organizations (I am a lifetime Girl Scout!), and enjoy traveling. My life has been and continues to be rewarding because of my education and career and life choices along the way. I believe you just can’t go wrong by selecting a STEM career.

Jill Tietjen_hhalltennis1

Jill on the tennis court with family and friends, May 2014.  I am on the far left.

 

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Judy Pipher

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Pipher, National Women’s Hall of Fame Induction, 2007.

This GGSTEM post is from Judy Pipher, University of Rochester, Prof. Emerita, Dept. Of Physics and Astronomy.  She says:

Jill Tietjen, professional engineer, author and speaker, as well as President of the Board of Directors of the National Women’s Hall of Fame, suggested that I submit a bio to “Grandma got STEM”. I qualify as a grandma (8 living grandchildren ages 15-29), 2 great-grandchildren (2 and 6), and the six year old has a sibling arriving this December. I am a very proud grandma and also gg (to the 2 and 6 year olds). When I participated in a 2013 National Women’s History Month panel in Seneca Falls NY where I live, there was a photo and article in our local paper of me representing current day scientists, and Melinda Grube playing Elizabeth Cady Stanton, discussing similarities and differences in women scientists then and now. My oldest grand-daughter photographed the page, placed it on facebook with the note “That’s my Gma on the front page!” Photo below.

when Pipher met Stanton

I am STEM qualified: PhD in Astronomy, Cornell University, 1971. Since that time, I have been at the University of Rochester. I retired as full time faculty member in 2002, but continue to conduct research there. My focus since graduate days, has been infrared astronomy. In those days, we hand-built single pixel infrared sensors for rocket astronomy experiments. My thesis research concentrated on dust emission from the galactic plane, and from massive star formation regions. Once I arrived at the University of Rochester, I began an infrared group. Although I had not yet obtained funding, my Cornell advisor gifted me with a dewar (which holds liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to cool the sensors) and I began the process of working on new sensors. Infrared sensors need to be extremely cold in order to be sensitive. With time, I gained funding, faculty colleagues at the University, students, and new projects.

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Pipher,  grad. student Jerry Krassner and Prof. Graeme Duthie installing a lamellar grating interferometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), 1977.

My first projects involved development of an infrared instrument to fly on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (see photo above) and the first of many infrared array camera developments. In 1984 my fellow infrared astronomer faculty member (the first of several that the department hired) and I became members of the Infrared Array Camera team for what was renamed the Spitzer Space Telescope. It was 20 years before it was launched, and it is still obtaining observations today with the sensor arrays we developed with Raytheon. I concentrated on star forming region research, and we are still publishing papers on this topic with Spitzer data. In the meantime, my group has been developing new infrared sensor arrays for space application. One current interest is NEOCam – it was granted technology funding in 2011 to develop special arrays that can be passively cooled in space by absorbing the cold of space efficiently, while radiating away heat generated by the instruments. Our hope is that NEOCam will be detecting Near Earth Objects – asteroids and comets which are close to the Earth, and may impact it – in 2018. Another current interest is the development of THz arrays for commercial application. For this body of work, I received the Susan B Anthony Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002, and was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2007. Other commendations are more field-specific. The photo at the top is the official photo for the 2007 Induction.

Meanwhile I am proud to serve on committees and Boards in my community – the National Women’s Hall of Fame, the Seneca Museum of Waterways and Industry, and the Cayuga Lake Watershed Network. And as a member of the NY Space Grant Consortium, I make every effort to encourage young women to enter STEM fields. It is unfortunately not unusual to be the only woman in the room when sensor results are being reported. Astronomy itself, does somewhat better – up to 15% US astronomers are women. But this number pales in comparison with the statistics of our European and Asian colleagues. “Women hold up half the sky” – part of a proclamation by Chairman Mao! has been coopted in a 2009 book by Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, and from which a Half the Sky movement has been formulated. In the US it is time for 50% of young women to pursue STEM educations so that in 50 years, “Grandma got STEM” will be unnecessary.

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Stephanie L. Kwolek

ImageImage from the Hagley Vault Digital Archives.  Caption says “Stephanie L. Kwolek, developer of Kevlar (circa 1995).  While working with DuPont Stephanie Kwolek developed the first liquid crystal polymer which provided the basis for Kevlar brand fiber.”  The New York times reported that Stephanie L. Kwolek passed away Wed June 18, 2014 at the age of 90.   See Washington Post article here.

Thank you to GGSTEM contributor Jill Tietjen, for the updated post below.

Stephanie Kwolek

Stephanie KwolekPhoto credit: National Women’s Hall of Fame.

Stephanie Kwolek is best known for her invention of KevlarTM, the lightweight yet very strong polymer used in bulletproof vests and many other products. In fact, when she was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1995, she was escorted to the stage by a policeman whose bulletproof KevlarTM vest had saved his life. Kwolek spent 40 years with DuPont during which time she obtained 16 patents for a variety of groundbreaking materials and devised new processes in polymer chemistry.

Kwolek had shown an early interest in science. Intending to pursue a career as a doctor, she graduated with a BS in chemistry from what is now Carnegie Mellon University in 1946. She accepted a position as a chemist in the rayon department with DuPont planning to save the money she needed to attend medical school. In 1950, she moved to Wilmington, Delaware, and became so interested in the polymer research in which she was involved that she decided medical school was no longer in her future. She said “I became so interested in the work I was doing that I stayed on. It was very challenging. It differed from day to day. It was very exciting because you never knew what you might come up with. It was a constant learning process.” In addition to KevlarTM, Kwolek worked on LycraTM spandex fibers used in athletic clothing and Nomex, which is fire resistant and used by firefighters.

Kwolek promoted science education for children – and scientific careers for women. She said “It was certainly difficult at times because the opportunities were not open to women from the 1940s through probably the 1970s. Things finally got better in the 1980s for women but the opportunities for advancement were limited.”

Stephanie Kwolek received many honors. In 1996, she received the National Medal of Technology “for her contributions to the discovery, development and liquid crystal processing of high-performance aramid fibers, which provide new products worldwide to save lives and benefit humankind.” In 1999, she received Lemelson-M.I.T. Lifetime Achievement Award. Kwolek has been inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame. In 2014, she was inducted into the Hall of Fame of Delaware Women.

 

 

 

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Dolores Shockley

2009_shockley

Thanks to  The 9-9…& the 2000 @KpSaysDoBetter, a former student of Dr. Dolores Shockley, who recommended her for #GGSTEM and says she is “all types of awesome.”

Here’s some information about her career on the site for distinguished alumni of Purdue university.  According to the site, Shockley is “the first African American woman to receive a PhD in Pharmacology in the United States.”

Posted in Pharmacy | 1 Comment

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin

Thanks to Deb Hirsch who pointed out this twitter post by Marcus Chown (@marcuschown) about Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin.

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