Francine (Jones) Schmitz

Picture taken in 1955 in the Physics Lab at Union College in Nebraska

Francine (Jones) Schmitz, who as near as I (her daughter) can tell is completely unknown in the annals of women in tech, graduated with a masters degree in nuclear physics in the late 50s. She was hired by Aerojet contracted to NASA in 1960, as one of a team of five scientists charged among other things with cataloging all the components of first the Gemini rocket, followed by the Apollo rockets and nuclear subs. Both the internet and the computers behind it were in the process of being born, and she developed a lot of the code that was later embedded in ROM.  She wrote most of the code for the first versions of data compression software – although a man on her team got the credit (he was on a 6 mo leave at the time, so no, he did not do it) and she architected and wrote a great deal of the original relational database code – they needed one, and such a thing didn’t exist. This team was an early user of the darpanet and contributed to early internet protocols as they had to build what they needed from the ground up in all respects.

She didn’t talk about her work while she was doing it, because it was all classified until the mid 70s.  After leaving Aerojet in California when they lost the NASA contracts to Texas, she worked for the state of California as a Civil Engineer, designing Highways, Salmon ladders, and writing a great deal of technical documentation. Later she was put in charge (in the 80s and 90s) of putting first California’s Employment Department, and then the California Tax department on the Internet.

She was truly a pioneer of computing and of the Internet.  She has always been reticent about her accomplishments and has said at times that she didn’t mind that the men took credit for her work – but I don’t think that was really true – I think she minded a lot, and just buried her feelings on the subject.

Written by Vicki (Schmitz) Fletcher, daughter of Francine (Jones) Schmitz

Posted in Aeronautics, Engineering | 1 Comment

My “Hidden Figures”: Three Octogenarian Indian Women with Particle Physics, Python Programming and Music

Rohit Dhamankar in conversation with Physicists: Dr. Bhamathi Sudarshan, Dr. Radha Gourishankar and Amba Raghavan in Austin, TX, Feb 25, 2018.


Early 1950s. Presidency College, Chennai, India.
(Left to Right) Amba Raghavan, Dr. Radha Gourishankar, Dr. Bhamathi Sudarshan

Three young women, draped in sarees covering their body except face and feet, no make-up, nothing that attracts attention to their womanhood, wait patiently outside their Physics and Math lecture halls. They wait for their Professors to accompany them inside every class they attend. They don’t go alone as they could be subjected to pranks the “only” women students in a class could be subjected to, and even if capable, they would not be able to fight back. They have promised their families that they will be “decent” and “well behaved” in the college. Their grandfathers have spoken with each other to ensure that girls from their respective decent families do not go alone by themselves in an all male environment. A single rumour or complaint about their conduct would be immediate grounds for stopping any further studies these women dreamt about. They came to college in buses from three corners of Chennai, and three different brahmin households. Two of them carried their curd-rice lunch packs. The third had a perennial fear of dropping the food box in the crowded bus, and got a permission and some extra change to buy the canteen food. They had to be back home before their evening curfew time of 5 PM under any circumstances.

When I spoke with these cool women – Amba, Bhamathi and Radha, they describe it as their “destiny” to be lifelong friends. Unlike today’s graduate school admission essays that describe how an applicant from the diaper age knows what he or she wants to be as a grown up, these women had interesting reasons for choosing Physics as their subject of study. Bhamathi could not bring herself to even dissect a frog, and hence “Nuclear Physics” sounded kinder and flashier. Radha’s brother and father had already taken degrees in Chemistry and Math, and so she wanted the overall family to not be left behind in Physics from the PCM group! Amba, the most practical one, was curious about even simple phenomenon like why water sticks to one’s hands, and she wanted to know answers for many such phenomena. They were all fortunate that there was an influential family member, who after seeing their potential, encouraged higher studies than what was considered a golden path for girls after high school in those times – arranged marriage, caring for family, observing rituals and festivals, and such.

Bhamathi and Radha went on to acquire a Ph.D. in Particle Physics in Chennai. They must have faced an uphill battle with their families when they expressed their desire to come to the US for their postdoctoral studies as single women then.

Radha did her postdocs in Stanford and Princeton whereas Bhamathi came to Boulder. Between the two of them, they covered many prestigious institutions where they have taught and delivered seminars in the US, Japan, Australia, UK and Chile. The intellect that was trying to get inside “atoms” was also trying to figure what would mimic the taste of tamarind the best! In places where Indian groceries was hard to come by or unheard of, I have heard stories from Bhamathi about creatively fusing local ingredients to suite her spicy, vegetarian, south Indian palate. They did not under the pretense of “style” and “modernism” adopt non-vegetarian food. Bhamathi’s creativity in the culinary area continues today with what my conservative self describes as odd combinations (vanilla in  ghee dripping, cardamom laden Pongal! Andavane!). I was clean bowled over by Radha’s Indian spin – topping a spinach, artichoke pizza slice from Brick Oven with a liberal dousing of a spicy mango pickle!

Bhamathi’s and Radha’s orbits in life after post doctoral studies spun around differently. Radha found her love in an Indian professor of Engineering in a Canadian university while being invited to present her research. Research took a slight back seat with the kids coming in her life. She continued her career in Physics in a diminished capacity. I almost fell off my chair, when Radha said that she taught herself how to program in Python to help her grandkids design video games a few years back. She continues to volunteer in school to teach “programming”. In terms of giving back to the community, she did many years of service of working with hospice patients and making them  comfortable in their last moments on this planet. She was recognized with “Woman of Distinction” award from YWCA, Edmonton, Canada for her work.

Bhamathi returned to India after her multiple postdocs, and became a Professor of Physics in Madras university. She rose to the Head of the Department position soon, and guided tens of M.Phil and Ph.D. students. She has many firsts to her credit including being featured as a woman achiever in Femina magazine and the Hindu newspaper. Years later, she found her love in another well renowned physicist that brought her to Austin in the 90s. As Physics started taking a back seat in Austin, another talent of hers came to forefront. Trained in an Indian classical style of music under a well renowned lineage, she became active in organizing a music festival and teaching students. Deep interest in Indian philosophy is “one on one free” for Sudarshans with their deep interest in Physics! Bhamathi gave back to women by being a founding member of “Saheli”, an organization, serving South Asian battered women. Our paths crossed then as I was looking for a teacher to continue my music after my learning in India.

Amba, on the other hand, decided to honour her family’s wishes of seeing her settled down and married after finishing her Masters in Physics. She went through an “arranged” marriage unlike her friends. As her husband got posted in various cities in India, she enrolled for further learning in another classical Indian language – Sanskrit. She passed higher level exams in it. At some point, she began teaching Physics in schools, and won respect from her colleagues for her knowledge and thoroughness. She counts her successes by the number of calls she continues to receive on “guru paurnima” day – a day for honoring teachers. She relocated to USA from India to live with her son, Prabhakar Raghavan of Google in the bay area, in her 60s. That did not deter her from learning to drive in the US. AP Physics and Math for her grandchildren got her back into teaching what she loved. Today she engages herself in researching products and prices that need to be replaced in her son’s house!

In the times, where I see “feminism” sometimes interpreted as not doing anything that a traditional Indian woman does, it is refreshing to see these women, who have defied many traditions in their times, indulge and enjoy the cultural aspects they were brought up with. The Physics seamlessly blends in with doing a Varalakshmi puja (Bhamathi, Radha), or everyday stotra recitation (Amba). Radha, in fact, chants thousand names of Vishnu while on a treadmill everyday. Enjoying Indian food with hands does not tarnish any images of sophistication. Cooking and cleaning are not tasks considered below dignity!

When asked about if they would change anything from their past, as I expected, they have no regrets. They took the life as it came, and tried to make it better for them, and people around them. They, of course, regretted about not challenging their brains more!! Radha said she should have learned Indian classical music. Bhamathi was still not satiated with a few postdocs; she regrets not doing more of those!

Their general guidance to the coming generation is to have good work ethics making the best use of what opportunities come by the way, and not taking any reward or privilege for granted. Most importantly, they believe the secret to happiness lies in making and keeping good friends for life!

As I left these mentally young friends to chat more through the night, I was most inspired by their continued spark to be creative, thinking and ever learning souls.


(Left to Right) Dr. Bhamathi Sudarshan, Amba Raghavan, Dr. Radha Gourishankar

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A convergence of STEM-Mas!

Dr BellFrom left:  Dr. Della Bell, Mrs. Simone Massingill and Ms. Zorah Taylor (Simone’s sister).

Thank you to STEM-Ma Jacqueline Brannon Giles for this post.

Grandma Got STEM is touching the lives of many young women and a former student of Dr. Della Bell can attest to this fact. Simone was taught by Dr. Bell in 1978 and Dr. Bell recalls that Simone was a dual degree student with a major in chemistry and mathematics.

Dr. Bell -2

Simone describes Dr. Bell as a professor who inspired her and nurtured her interest in mathematics. After a 33 year teaching career, Simone says that she never taught chemistry but taught mathematics at various levels in school districts and colleges.

Our Grandma Got STEM webmaster contacted this writer, and wonderful experiences resulted from communicating and connecting to help Simone get in touch with Dr. Bell. Dr. Bell and Prof. Giles attended Simone’s elegant retirement party at a location near Bush International Airport in Houston, Texas.

Prof. Giles likes to adapt life experiences into lessons for students at Texas Southern University since she currently teaches courses at the university located in Houston, Texas. Years ago Prof. Giles was hired by Dr. Bell who served in a leadership/administrative position at Texas Southern for about 38 years. The experiences shared by all of us demonstrate the importance of inspiring, teaching, communicating and connecting with students so that we can someday report on more outstanding and dedicated professionals similar to Simone, and Dr. Della Bell.

Posted in Mathematics, Teaching | Tagged , | 4 Comments

Muthulakshmi Reddi

Muthulakshmi Reddi_tumblr_inline_otjt6981mN1sbmdg8_400


From this link and suggested by librarian Sam Kome:

Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddi was born on July 30, 1886 in Madras, India. Dr. Reddi was a tireless advocate for women’s rights in India. She was British India’s first woman legislator, and the first woman to serve as Deputy President of the Legislative Council. Dr. Reddi was also the first woman to serve as House Surgeon at the Government Maternity and Ophthalmic Hospital. In 1956, Dr. Reddi won the Padma Bhushan, the India’s third-highest civilian honor.

Muthulakshmi Reddi died in 1968 at the age of 81.

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Maryam Mirzhakhani


Photo credit:  Stanford University

This page at the AMS website is collecting tributes to

Maryam Mirzakhani, May 3, 1977-July 14, 2017

“Maryam Mirzakhani, the only woman to win a Fields Medal, died on July 14 at the age of 40. Mirzakhani was a professor at Stanford University and a highly original mathematician who made a host of striking contributions to geometry and dynamical systems. Her work bridges several mathematical disciplines—including hyperbolic geometry, complex analysis, topology, and dynamics—and in return deeply influenced them all.”




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Marina Ratner


You may be inspired by this NY Times obituary for Marina Ratner. It opens our eyes not only to who can do math, but also to WHEN we can do work that is of value to the profession.

The article begins:

“Marina Ratner, an influential mathematician and Russian-Jewish émigré who defied the notion that the best and the brightest in her field do their finest work when they are young, died on July 7 at her home in El Cerrito, Calif. She was 78.”

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Amazing Women in Phenomenal Conference

by  Jacqueline Brannon Giles

Sometimes you have to take time out to mingle with others and to learn more about the challenges and struggles of other women. During my youthful days, I never attended a Women’s Conference, but today I was compelled by the Holy Spirit to rise up early in the morning to prepare to attend a conference at The Church Without Walls. The conference is led by First Lady Sheretta West and many other gifted and talented women in the United States.

In the session I attended, questions were asked: What do you have on your bucket list? What do you want to accomplish?

I answered clearly and audibly, “I want to impart and I want to develop protégés.”
I listened carefully and noticed that many voiced their desire to travel and to accomplish other creative and impressive feats. As I reflect on my life at 73 years old, I have been blessed to travel the heart of the African continent with a President of the United States of America in August 2000. As a member of President William Jefferson Clinton’s entourage I have traveled from Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland to Abuja, Nigeria, followed by a visit to Arusha, Tanzania, and then to Cairo, Egypt. I have attended the Handover Service from a Military Government to a Democracy in Abuja, Nigeria in May, 1999. I presented a research paper, entitled “Mathematics and Democracy.” The elite audience for the research paper was a Nigerian Think Tank in Abuja, Nigeria in July 2001.

As I reflect on the wisdom and gifts of my father, Reverend Edsel Warren Brannon, Sr. I can truly say that his pronouncement over my life has been actualized. He said a scripture: “Your gift will make room for you and bring you before great men.” Daddy was right!

A few days ago, I took time out to visit a great man, the Honorable Al Edwards, who presided over Texas District 146 for many years and who authored legislation to make Juneteenth a holiday. During our recent visit, Elder Edwards said, in summary, “When President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, he could have designated the day as a holiday, but he did not.” Edwards continued in a careful and thoughtful manner, and he emphasized how his mission was to establish the holiday, and now there is a statue in Galveston, Texas standing tall in his image to commemorate the phenomenal accomplishments of his career. The message that slaves were freed arrived late in Texas, and, thus, the date of the arrival of the good news is labeled “Juneteenth.”

Today, June 24, 2017 when I saw the talented Yolanda Adams, a native Houstonian who is a Grammy Award recipient, I mentioned to her that I visited the Honorable Al Edwards in a location on South Braeswood. She encountered the Honorable Al Edwards at a 2017 Juneteenth program. She asked about his health, and I affirmed that he is improving and he desires to continue his work related to Juneteenth so that this generation of youths gets a more thorough understanding of the social and cultural challenges of African Americans in the United States. I believe my response was encouraging to her, and she paused and took a photograph with me. I immediately indicated to her that I would write articles and share them with the students at S.H.A. P. E. Community Center. My mission at this time in my career is to impart knowledge and inspiration so that creative and impactful achievements can permeate the millennials and the next generation in the 21st century. She smiled.

Today was a great day for me as I listened and learned more about the social, emotional, and spiritual journey of women who are beautiful, highly achieved and still learning how to negotiate their family and career in America, while praying to keep balance in their lives.

Finally, I greeted Deborah Duncan who I have admired for many years, and I shared with her my interest in teaching and inspiring S.H.A.P.E. Summer Session students. Our focus this summer is mathematics, pattern recognition and the philosophy of mathematics. She smiled and agreed to take a photograph with me so that the students can see that I am always mindful of their need to be mentored and inspired to achieve excellence.

I enjoyed the conference that addressed issues of amazing women who have phenomenal lives in Houston, Harris County and in the United States of America.



Posted in Education, Mathematics | 6 Comments

Dr May Edward Chinn

Anyone want to write a post about her?

Thanks to Catherine Roberts, who posted this link on Facebook.  I have not checked the sources, but it sounds like a story worth pursuing.

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Hemavathy Appan


This is a story of my mom, Dr. Hemavathy, a pediatrician in India. She was born in Kariapattinam, a small village in southern India in the state of Tamil Nadu. The village had one school that only went up to the equivalent of 4th grade. The medium of instruction was Tamil. As was common in Indian families at the time, she was part of a large joint family consisting of her parents, five of her other siblings, and five of her eldest brother’s children. Mom showed interest in academics early on, despite the lack of real opportunity. After a few years, the family moved to Chennai, a large city and the capital of Tamil Nadu. One of the first challenges she faced was having to ace an English proficiency test to be able to join a public school in Chennai that provided English as a medium of instruction.

By the time mom finished high school in 1967, her dad had retired and her eldest brother was the sole earning member of the family with 12 dependents. I can’t imagine how hard that must have been.

Mom became a doctor almost entirely by chance – she had excellent grades in her high school finals, but she didn’t have anyone to counsel her on career options. She was considering getting a bachelor’s degree in Physics.  A family friend who happened to visit them saw her scores and convinced her to apply to study medicine, telling her that she had a good chance of getting admission. Given the family financial situation, the understanding was that she could only join if she also got a scholarship. Her grades helped her get a scholarship, and she was in! She started medical school at Stanley Medical College in 1968, one of 30 women in her class of 120.

Money was tight all through her college days. Mom used to walk to college instead of taking the bus, and she would borrow medical books from the library or from friends instead of buying them. She did this to save up scholarship money left over after college tuition to help towards family expenses. After getting her medical degree she started working for hospitals in Chennai while also getting a diploma in child health. She moved to Hosur, a small town in Tamil Nadu after her wedding, where she and my dad raised my family.

In Hosur, she worked all day at a public hospital, which provides free medical treatment to low-income patients. Her specialty was neonatal care, pediatrics, and tubal sterilization. She also started a private practice in the evenings, remodeling our home’s front balcony into a medical examination room. The practice had some challenges early on but slowly grew to be very successful. I still remember a day in my childhood when she once got paid peanuts, and I mean that literally! One of her patients was a peanut farmer who had cash flow problems and he asked to pay her with a sack of peanuts for a year of medical care.

Throughout her career, she won multiple awards and commendations from the government for her service. Now retired, mom continues to work at her private practice she started over 30 years ago. She works 8 to 10 hours every day seeing patients from all walks of life. Her patients travel from many nearby villages because they trust her with their health needs. Mom also consults for several hospitals as a specialist in OB-GYN and pediatrics. She shows no signs of slowing down and says she will keep working because her patients need her.

My mom’s life story has taught me a key life lesson – resilience. No matter what life throws at you, whether you have personal challenges or problems at work, work through it taking action to improve your situation. How you respond to challenges is entirely up to you. Develop a resilient attitude and you can conquer anything.


Mom and Dad together when visiting us in Texas.

GGSTEM would like to thank Preetha Appan, who saw our call for international submissions and contributed this post in honor of her mother’s birthday.

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Iris Runge

Iris Runge: A Pioneer in applied mathematics and electronics

By Else Hoyrup, Danish mathematician and historian of science


This image of Runge appears on the Humboldt University Site.

Iris Runge (1888-1966) was a German applied mathematician, physicist, and inventor. In her family there were many scientists. Her father was the famous professor in applied mathematics at Göttingen University, Carl Runge (1856-1927). He was a specialist in numerical analysis and one of his results was “Runge-Kutta’s approximation formula”, which is used to solve differential equations numerically. Iris Runge also came to work with numerical analysis later, when she became one of the first “industrial mathematicians.” So she followed in her father’s footsteps, but nevertheless she had a very independent mind through all her life. This independence was very appreciated, both in her family, and at her work.

Iris R. was employed as a mathematical problem-solver at the German corporations, Osram and Telefunken. At first she worked at Osram with research and calculations on incandescent light bulbs. Later she was transferred from Osram to Telefunken, where she worked with radio tubes (electron tubes). Iris R. just loved to calculate and solve problems, and the more complicated problems, the better! This we know from her letters to her family. She was so proficient at her work that, although she was a woman in a man’s world, she became highly respected as a specialist.

Iris Runge was a pioneer, both as an industrial mathematician and as a woman. At her time, it was still hard for women to get a chance to work professionally.

Among the special fields, with which Iris R. worked at Osram and Telefunken, we can mention:

  1. Numerical analysis (mathematics) – before the computers
  2. Applied statistics. She co-authored one of the first textbooks on statistical quality control in mass production. The book was only published in German, so although it was an important and pioneering work, it did not receive the international attention, it ought to have got
  3. Optics
  4. Material science (physics)
  5. Electronics
  6. Besides all this, Iris Runge also made some inventions in physics, electronics, and technology.

An intellectual family in wartimes and before and after

Iris Runge’s family was very culturally interested and they had many English-speaking contacts, because they mastered English. It was really an internationally-oriented family.

But already in the 1930s, there came much political turmoil in Germany because of Hitler and the Nazis. Iris Runge and her family were very conscious and active socially and politically.

During World War II, Iris Runge was forced to stay at Osram and Telefunken. She was not happy with her work anymore, because some of the electronics she worked with could be used in the war. She was not a Nazi. She contemplated emigration to the United States, like her sister and brother-in-law, the great mathematician, Richard Courant (1888-1972), who was a Jew. She had hoped to be able to get an assistantship with the famous Belgian-American historian of science, George Sarton (1884-1956). But this job did not materialize, because he could not get the money for it. So she was forced to stay on at Osram and Telefunken in order to earn a living.

Iris Runge’s brother, Wilhelm Runge (1895-1987), was a pioneer in radar technology, and because radar was very important in the war, he had to work directly under a military contract – and to be a member of the Nazi party.  But no sources mention that he was a confirmed Nazi.  As a matter of fact, the whole Runge family was a cosmopolitan non-Nazi family.

We can contrast Wilhelm Runge with another German military engineer, the rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun (1912-1977). He was definitely a confirmed Nazi, and he used concentration camp prisoners as slave workers. This has been shown in a TV documentary about Wernher von Braun and the Russian rocket pioneer, Sergei Korolev (1907-1966). After the war, Wernher von Braun was headhunted to the United States, where he became the leader of NASA’s space program. He became very popular in America.

To return to our heroine, Iris Runge, she worked at the crossroads of mathematics, physics, technology, and industry.

After the war, it became difficult for German scientists in military-related jobs to continue their work in Germany in private businesses, because the allied occupation authorities had misgivings about this. Some of the scientists emigrated to the United States (as Wernher von Braun), or to the Soviet Union. Many of those, who chose to remain in Germany, continued their work at the universities. Iris Runge herself also had a university career after the war. She ended as a professor of physics at Humboldt University in Berlin. After the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, this university was situated in Eastern Berlin.

Although some of Iris Runge’s work with radio tubes (electron tubes) could be used by the military, the civilian possibilities for applications were even greater. Just think of the radio, television and all other electronics. The electronics of Iris Runge and many others heralded our modern IT-society.

Iris Runge was indeed a pioneer, both professionally, and as a woman scientist in a man’s world.


Renate Tobies: Iris Runge: A life at the Crossroads of Mathematics, Science, and Industry. / Translated by Valentine A. Pakis. Birkhäuser/Springer, 2012. 442 pp. ISBN: 978-3-0348-0229-1. Originally published in German under the title “Morgen möchte ich wieder 100 herrliche Sachen ausrechnen”: Iris Runge bei Osram und Telefunken. 2010.

Else Hoyrup: Iris Runge: A Pioneer in Industrial Mathematics. [Review essay of Renate Tobies’ book]. Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) Newsletter, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-June 2016, pp. 14-17.

Posted in Electronics, Mathematics, Physics | Leave a comment